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TRANSLATION IN RELATION TO CULTURE

 By  Dolar Yuwono

       A.      Introduction
       When the writer was asked to give a presentation related to “Translation in relation to Culture”, he immediately thought of his own past experiences learning a foreign language and the learning process he went through in understanding the culture of the language he studied. However, his brain quickly became flooded as ,throughout  his multicultural nation, Indonesia, he has faced a present-day phenomenon concerning several experiences learning a variety of languages  which has  impact on almost all peoples worldwide as well as on the international relations emerging from the current new world order. His academic background in Teaching English as a Foreign Language has instilled in him the utmost reverence for foreign language acquisition in the process of understanding culture.  Shortly after the mental flood of language learning experiences, he was drawn to his first encounter with teaching a foreign language in SMA.  Also, he was drawn to think of the variety of language and culture issues that his country, Indonesia, has faced, and continues to face as a country of multilingual and multiracial background.
        AS a teacher of foreign language(English) in SMA, he faced many problems not only related to the preparation of the material which suited with the national standard curriculum, but also other aspects like approach, method, and techniques used, and cross cross-cultural understanding of the taught language which would be given to the students. The last that he mentions ,if he could say, is unique problem due to its important role as a part of teaching material but most of the teachers ignore or,  maybe, just take it for granted.
       English, which has been stated in the national education bills no 20,2005 as the foreign language taught in SMA, is as the compulsory subject for the students starting from secondary schools up to senior high schools without any clear explanation related to the involvement of the culture. The inclusion of the culture in teaching English in the national curriculum either at the level of secondary, or at the level of high school is never clearly seen and described. Therefore, by requiring the study of English for high school, the teachers of the school should demonstrate their belief in the importance of creating cultural awareness amongst Indonesian youth of their multicultural friends. Of course, at that level, learning the language is as important as learning about the culture.  While the students are introduced to numbers, colors, and differences in the sounds of the English alphabet, they are also learning about how to greet other people(language function), wedding party,  holidays, foods, and places and other aspects of the English speaking world.  For himself, as a teacher of English, these cultural aspects of language learning are what really sparked his interest.  Of course, this was due to no ignorance of the teacher.  In retrospect, he knows, as everyone at his school knows, that his affinity to English was largely cultivated by the teacher and the teacher’s knowledge of the irrevocable relationship between language and culture. 

.
            Indeed, as teachers, we can and should in fact USE culture to add interest to our lessons. While his fluency in English never flowered fully, mostly because he had no exposure and time to practice with his colleagues once he taught in high school, later on in life, he has  been able to make English-speaking friends in different  parts of the world and he was fortunate enough to have the opportunity to travel to some ASEAN countries and travel with a American and British, Arabian friends he had met abroad.                                                                                      
B. Contextualization of culture to the translation
          He believes, for English language teachers in Indonesia, the problem of teaching language and culture is more complex.  What culture, exactly, should they be teaching in tandem with English language?  Sure, a teacher could pick from the usual American, English, or Australian cultural contexts, but s/he thinks limiting her/himself to the culture of these countries is too narrow.  Can a teacher possibly teach all?  Or maybe a teacher can highlight the parts he or she likes from each culture..?  On the other hand, the teacher could reach into the sources of international English culture, but that might quickly become quite limitless but useful if the teacher can successfully navigate finding sources from and about the world’s various cultures, how English is used in parts of the world, and how English communicates foreign and new culture.  
              In contact with the his above statements ,it has been long taken for granted that translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This can be seen in most of the following definitions.
Larson (1989, h. 3): penerjemahan merupakan pengalihan makna dari bahasa sumber (BSu) kedalam bahasa sasaran (BSa).
Brislin (1976, p.. 1): penerjemahan adalah istilah umum yang mengacu pada pengalihan pikiran atau gagasan dari suatu BSu kedalam BSa baik tulisan maupun lisan, ("the general term referring to the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one language (source) to another (target), whether the languages are in written or oral form; whether the languages have established orthographies or do not have such standardization or whether one or both languages is based on signs, as with sign languages of the deaf.")
According to Nida and Taber in The Theory and Practice of Translation (1969, p. 12), “Translating consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source-language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style”.

Pym (1982, h. 39): terjemahan merupakan hasil pencarian padanan yang sedekat mungkin antara teks BSu dan teks BSa dengan mempertimbangkan pemahaman yang sama dalam isi dan gaya aslinya.
Catford (1965: 20) states that translation is the replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent textual material in another language. In this definition, the most important thing is equivalent textual material. Yet, it is still vague in terms of the type of equivalence. Culture is not taken
                                                                             
into account (penerjemahan adalah suatu kerja yang diwujudkan dalam bahasa, yaitu, proses pergantian suatu teks bahasa yang satu dengan teks bahasa yang lain.)
Identical with the above   definition is the one proposed by Pinhhuck (1977:38). He maintains that “Translation is a process of finding a TL equivalent for an SL utterance”.                                                               
In the definitions appearing in 1960s-1970s,(Haryanto Sugeng,,translanguage@telkom.net,) some similarities have been found: (1) there is a change of expression from one language to the other, (2) the meaning and message are rendered in the TL, and (3) the translator has an obligation to seek for the closest equivalent in the TL. Yet, there is no indication that culture is taken into account except in that of Nida and Taber. Actually Nida and Taber themselves do not mention this matter very explicitly.
Following their explanation on "closest natural equivalent", however, we can infer that cultural consideration is considered. They maintain that the equivalent sought after in every effort of translating is the one that is so close that the meaning/message can be transferred well. As stated by Haryanto S. that the concept of closest natural equivalent is rooted in Nida's concept of dynamic equivalent. His celebrated example is taken from the Bible, that is the translation of "Lamb of God" into the Eskimo language. Here "lamb" symbolizes innocence, especially in the context of sacrifice. As a matter of fact, Eskimo culture does not know "lamb". Thus, the word does not symbolize anything. Instead of "Lamb of God", he prefers "Seal of God" to transfer the message. Here he considers cultural aspects.
The inclusion of cultural perspective in the definition of translation unfortunately does not continue. The later ones keep on not touching this matter. See the following definition.
      "Translation involves the rendering of a source language (SL) text into the target language (TL) so as to ensure that (1) the surface meaning of the two will be approximately similar and (2) the structure of the SL will be preserved as closely as possible, but not so closely that the TL structure will be seriously distorted (McGuire, 1980: 2).
       In the following definition, Newmark does not state anything about culture.
      "Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language" (Newmark, 1981: 7).
       Finally, Wills defines translation more or less similarly as follows.
      "Translation is a transfer process which aims at the transformation of a written SL text into an optimally equivalent TL text, and which requires the syntactic, the semantic and the pragmatic understanding and analytical processing of the SL" (Wills in Noss, 1982: 3).
It is known that out of 8 definitions above only one takes cultural aspects into account, the one by Nida and Taber. This definition is actually a specific one, rooted from the practice of the Bible translation. By nature, it is understood that the translation should be done to every language. As the content addresses all walks of life and culture plays an important role in human life, culture, therefore, should be considered.
                                                               
                                                                                    
The other definitions, however, are meant to explain the experts' view on translation theory to be applied in the translation of all types of material, including scientific or technical texts which are not deeply embedded in any culture. Thus, it can be momentarily hypothesized that cultural consideration must be taken if the material to translate is related to culture. For material that is not very much embedded into a specific culture, cultural consideration may not be necessary.
According to Snell-Hornby (1988: 39), however, this exclusion of cultural aspect from the discussion of translation theory is due to the view of the traditional approach in linguistics which draws a sharp dividing-line between language and "extralinguistic reality" (culture, situation, etc.). The contemporary approach, according to her, sees language as an integral part of culture. This view can be seen in Hymes (1964) and Halliday and Hasan (1985), for example.
The term 'culture' addresses three salient categories of human activity: the 'personal,' whereby we as individuals think and function as such; the 'collective,' whereby we function in a social context; and the 'expressive,' whereby society expresses itself,(Alejandra Patricia Karamanian,www.baspeech.com.aralejandra@baspeech.com.ar).

Language is the only social institution without which no other social institution can function; it therefore underpins the three pillars upon which culture is built.

Translation, involving the transposition of thoughts expressed in one language by one social group into the appropriate expression of another group, entails a process of cultural de-coding, re-coding and en-coding. As cultures are increasingly brought into greater contact with one another, multicultural considerations are brought to bear to an ever-increasing degree. Now, how do all these changes influence us when we are trying to comprehend a text before finally translating it? We are not just dealing with words written in a certain time, space and sociopolitical situation; most importantly it is the "cultural" aspect of the text that we should take into account. The process of transfer, i.e., re-coding across cultures, should consequently allocate corresponding attributes vis-a-vis the target culture to ensure credibility in the eyes of the target reader(
www.baspeech.com.ar
alejandra@baspeech.com.ar).
C.  Intercultural competence for translators
Byram and Risager, who have published widely on intercultural competence in language education, suggest that the competence learners need for successful intercultural communication is
one which enables them to bring the two cultures and cultural identities present in the interaction into a relationship of communication. The foreign-speaker must be able to perceive and understand the culture(s) of the native-speaker, to reflect on his/her own culture(s) as seen from the foreign perspective, and to relate one to the other, explain each in terms of the other, accepting that conflicting perceptions are not always reconcilable. (1999: 65f.)

                                                                      
         For some 25 years intercultural competence has been a fashionable, much-quoted and influential concept in language education. Thus, a recent EU study conducted in thirteen European Countries found that "considerable attention is given to the development of intercultural competence in classroom practice, which appears to be aligned with the position of intercultural competence as specified within the different curricula" (Franklin2007:50).
According to Byram and Risager this competence should enable the learner to become "a mediator between cultures", which is essential from a communicative point of view since "it is the mediation which allows for effective communication" (1999: 58). In other words, the ability to mediate between two cultures is an essential component of intercultural competence.
Considering this aspect of intercultural competence, one task which draws heavily on students’ intercultural competence is communicative translation. If translation is regarded as an act of communication in which a text produced for readers in one particular context is rendered for readers in another, students need to take on the role of intercultural mediators. First, they need to relate source and target culture in order to identify culture-specificity in the source text. Subsequently, they have to try and explain one culture in terms of the other when seeking a communicatively satisfactory mediating position for cultural divergences.
Consequently, learners’ performance in communicative translation tasks can yield valuable insights into their approach to intercultural issues and the specific problems they encounter. Some of these problems were discovered in a study which explored the translation behaviour of British university students of German when translating culture-specific lexis. In the following section the study will first be described. Subsequently, some of the findings will be presented and possible implications for teaching practice will be pointed out.
For the identification of cultural references the researcher relied essentially on the following definition provided by Aixelá:
Those textually actualized items whose function and connotations in a source text involve a translation problem in their transference to a target text, whenever the problem is a product of the nonexistence of the referred item or of its different intertextual status in the cultural system of the readers of the target text. (1996: 58; italics in the original)
Culture in this discussion should be seen in a broad sense, as in anthropological studies. Culture is not only understood as the advanced intellectual development of mankind as reflected in the arts, but it refers to all socially conditioned aspects of human life (cf. Snell-Hornby, 1988: Hymes, 1964). In practical wordings, Goodenough (1964: 36) puts:
"As I see it, a society's culture consists of whatever it is one has to know or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its members, and do so in any role that they accept for any one of themselves. Culture, being what people have to learn as distinct from their biological heritage, must consist of the end product of learning: knowledge, in a most general, if relative, sense of the term. By definition, we should note that culture is not material phenomenon; it does not consist
                                                            
    of things, people, behavior, or emotions. It is rather an organization of these things. It is the forms of things that people have in mind, their models of perceiving and dealing with their circumstances. To one who knows their culture, these things and events are also signs signifying the cultural forms or models of which they are material representation."                                                           
It can be summarized that this definition suggests three things: (a) culture seen as a totality of knowledge and model for perceiving things, (b) immediate connection between culture and behavior and events, and (c) culture's dependence on norms. It should be noted also that some other definitions claim that both knowledge and material things are parts of culture. See, for example, Koentjaraningrat (1996: 80-81) and Hoijer (1967: 106)
According to Snell-Hornby (1988: 40), the connection between language and culture was first formally formulated by Wilhelm Von Humboldt. For this German philosopher, language was something dynamic: it was an activity (energia) rather than a static inventory of items as the product of activity (ergon). At the same time language is an expression of culture and individuality of the speakers, who perceive the world through language. Related to Goodenough's idea on culture as the totality of knowledge, this present idea may see language as the knowledge representation in the mind.
In 1973, Humboldt's view was echoed by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf in their Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. This principle states that thought does not "precede" language, but on the contrary thought is conditioned by it. The system of honorific style used in Javanese, for example, affects the speakers' concepts of social status.
Halliday (in Halliday and Hasan (1985: 5) states that there was the theory of context before the theory of text. In other words, context precedes text. Context here means context of situation and culture (Halliday and Hasan, 1985: 7). This context is necessary for adequate understanding of the text, which becomes the first requirement for translating. Thus, translating without understanding text is non-sense, and understanding text without understanding its culture is impossible.
Humboldt's idea, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, and Halliday's idea have a far-reaching implications for translation. In its extreme, the notion that language conditions thought and that language and thought is bound up with the individual culture of the given community would mean that translation is impossible. We cannot translate one's thought which is affected by and stated in language specific for a certain community to another different language because the system of thought in the two languages (cultures) must be different. Each language is unique. If it influences the thought and, therefore, the culture, it would mean that ultimate translation is impossible.
Another point of view, however, asserts the opposite. Ironically this also goes back to Humboldt's idea bout inner and outer forms of language. Later it is developed into the concepts of deep structure and surface structure by Chomsky. Inner form and deep structure is what generally known as idea. Following this concepts, all ideas are universal. What is different is only the surface structure, the outer from. If it is so, translation is only a change of surface structure to represent the universal deep structure. Accordingly, translation is theoretically always possible.

                                                     
All in all, we are faced with two extremes. Which one is right? The answer, according to Snell-Hornby (1988: 41) lies not in choosing any of the two. If the extremes are put at the ends of a cline, the answer lies between the two. In brief, theoretically the degree of probability for perfect translation depends on how far the source language text (SLT) is embedded in its culture and the greater the distance between the culture between SLT and target language text (TLT), the higher is the degree of impossibility. See the following            excerpts for illustration in the part of duscussion of this paper. The source language (SL) is Indonesian and the target language (TL) is English.

   D. Findings
         1. Lack of source-culture knowledge
As the text was fraught with cultural references, source-culture knowledge, i.e. knowledge about the British concepts in the source text, clearly played an important role in the students’ translation process. Two different types of source-culture knowledge problems were distinguished. The first category comprises all instances where students had a comprehension problem of which they were aware ("overt source-culture knowledge problem"). The second group contains all CR translations where students already had or arrived at a wrong meaning hypothesis, but did not appear to be aware of it ("covert source-culture knowledge problem"). The knowledge problems were identified on the basis of the following criteria:
n
An overt source-culture knowledge problem was assumed to have been involved in the translation of a CR, if at least one of the following occurred:
a student states at any point of the process that s/he is uncertain about the meaning  of the CR or any aspect of its meaning relevant to its translation; a student reports any such problem during the retrospection;
a student uses the dictionary of British culture1 in order to establish or confirm a meaning hypothesis;
a student states a wrong meaning hypothesis, which is later in the process corrected;
n
A covert source-culture knowledge problem was assumed to have been involved in a CR translation, if at least one of the following occurred:
a student forms a wrong meaning hypothesis during the thinking aloud, which is not corrected or reveals a wrong meaning hypothesis during the retrospection;
a student’s written translation shows a clear misunderstanding of the CR, even though no comprehension problem was reported;
Surprisingly, roughly one fifth of the cultural references in the text caused overt or covert comprehension problems for the British students, which means that on average the translation of six CRs involved a source-culture knowledge problem. For instance, 26% of the students were
                                                                                 8
uncertain about the meaning of "Oxbridge" or misinterpreted the item. This figure rises to 47% for the CR "Whitehall", to 63% in the case of "City of London" and to more than 70% for "QCs" and "Inns of Court". The items that caused most comprehension problems were "Clubland" and "Corporation" (both 84%). While the students were not expected to always have a clear idea about relatively complex concepts such as "the Inns of Court", it was astonishing to regularly detect complete lack of knowledge. For instance, in the case of "Inns of Court" most of the students who had comprehension problems appeared to have come across the term for the first time. Student B8 declared that she had "never heard of them [her]self", as did participants B15 and B14. Others reported that they had no idea what the term referred to, indicating the absence of even a vague concept. This complete absence of knowledge did not only occur for relatively rare and complex expressions, but also for items which were believed to be more well-known. Student B17 reported that she had never come across the term "Home Counties" before, and three other students stated frankly that they did not know what "it" was. Similarly, students B19 and B17 said that they did not know the term "Whitehall" while participant B15 remembered the process thus:
first of all it made me think of White House and that’s obviously America... and then [after looking up "Whitehall" in Collins] I don’t think anyone in England really refers to the British government as Whitehall... I don’t know if we really say that
Even though the above are only examples and cannot be used as a basis for generalisation about the students’ knowledge of their native culture, they suggest that insufficient familiarity of native-culture concepts can be a significant problem in translation. As one has to bear in mind, the CRs in the given text were not selected for their complexity or obscurity, but occurred "naturally" in an authentic, non-specialised article in a broadsheet paper. The degree of miscomprehension or simple lack of understanding by graduate or near-graduate native speakers was therefore rather unexpected.
An interesting group of comprehension problems were those instances where students believed they had understood a cultural reference whereas in fact their translation was based on a wrong meaning hypothesis (covert source-culture knowledge problems). For instance, the term "Clubland" posed problems, which were rooted in the ambivalence of the word "club" in its traditional sense referring to exclusive gentlemen’s clubs and its more recent meaning denoting a night-club. Apparently misled by the latter meaning eight of the students (42%) believed that the term "Clubland" in the source text referred to an area bustling with nightlife. This misinterpretation occurred even though several of the students consulted the dictionary of British culture, which defined "Clubland" as an area with many clubs. Clearly, the students believed they had understood the meaning of "club" and, consequently, did not check the cross-referenced entry of "club" directly above "Clubland", which would have clarified its intended meaning. Significantly, the fact that students had misinterpreted the CR was not always obvious from their written translations. In fact, only one third of the written translations
                                                                            9
made the misunderstanding obvious (e.g. "‘Clubland’, das berühmte Disco Gebiet Londons" [Clubland, London’s famous nightlife district]). In the other cases students used translations such as "Klubviertel" [club quarter], as suggested by the bilingual dictionary, or simply transferred "Clubland", which would have made it impossible for a marker to identify the comprehension problem. This underlines the importance of the think-aloud and retrospective data, without which the wrong meaning hypothesis of the students would not have been detected. The item "City of London" posed a similar problem with six students believing that "City of London" referred to the city as a whole, which led to mistranslations such as "die Hauptstadt London" (the capital London) or "die Stadt London" (the city of London).
What is remarkable about these misinterpretations is the fact that the students on almost no occasion seemed to be concerned about the fact that the assumed meaning made little sense in the given text. Thus, none of the students seemed to notice the obvious clash between the phrase "solid base in tradition" and the relatively modern activity of "clubbing". Similarly, none of the students misinterpreting "City of London" appeared to wonder what the connection was between "tradition", "institutions" and London as a whole. This seems to indicate that context only played a limited role in the comprehension and translation process of the students. Apparently, the students approached CRs not so much as a part of a text, but as isolated language items, which were dealt with on an individual basis.
 2. Target-culture knowledge problems
Compared to the frequent and grave problems caused by lack of source-culture knowledge, comments indicating target-culture knowledge problems were rare: only fifteen remarks suggested that students had an overt target-culture knowledge problem. In these comments clarification was mainly sought in relation to legal terms with students attempting to delineate the German concept of "Rechtsanwalt" (lawyer) as opposed to that of "solicitor" or "barrister". The fact that comments referring to lack of target-culture knowledge were rare was assumed to be mainly related to the nature of the text and the task. Since the text dealt with the students’ native culture and the translation brief did not call for extreme shifts towards the target culture (e.g. by requiring the substitution of British CRs with target-culture equivalents), the students appeared to mainly operate within a source-culture framework or the common ground occupied by both cultures.
While overt target-culture knowledge problems seemed rare, the phrase "old professions" seemed to cause covert target-culture knowledge problems in 13 instances (68%), because students did not appear to be aware of the culture-specific differences between the German term "Berufe" and "the professions". In the case of "old professions" the translation problem has two culture-specific facets, one of which stems from different lexical segmentation in German and English. The standard translation for "profession" given in bilingual dictionaries is usually the term "Beruf", which is more comprehensive than the English expression and includes any kind of occupation which requires training, regardless of status and type of qualification. 
          German, however, lacks a single word denoting occupations of a higher status. The second aspect of culture specificity are the connotations of "old professions" in the given text, which are deeply rooted in British society and therefore difficult to convey in German. Thus, the term "old professions" in English is linked closely with the well-educated middle classes and an old-established social hierarchy, which is not captured by the connotatively neutral "Beruf".
           Most of the students, however, put "alte Berufe" either in a form of automatic substitution or after consulting the bilingual dictionary. In the interviews subsequent to the think-aloud translation all but one student who had put "alte Berufe" gave the impression that they assumed there to be full equivalence between "Berufe" and "professions". Unfortunately, the translation "alte Berufe" appears somewhat awkward in the given context since the German phrase seems more likely to refer to old trades such as cobblers, bakers or saddlers than traditional academic professions. Thus, search of the online corpus of the German Language Institute (IDS) in Mannheim (available at http:// cosmas2.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2-web/) suggests strongly that "alte Berufe" would not be associated with traditional academic professions by German readers. The corpus contains more than three billion running words and comprises various newspapers and magazines in the German language. The item "alte Berufe" registers more than thirty hits, none of which refer to academic professions. Typically, excerpts found in the corpus focus on old trades which have all but died out: "alte Berufe wie Schmied und Schleiferei" [old trades such as blacksmiths and grinders] or "alte Berufe wie Wagner, Sattler, Hufschmied" [old trades such as wainwright, saddler, farrier]. This suggests that the students’ rendering could easily evoke inappropriate connotations in German readers.
          3. Insufficient knowledge of German terminology for British concepts
         As pointed out by Newmark (1988), certain referent types such as well-known political institutions, book and film titles, or geographical terms tend to have standardised translations in other languages. Thus, normally "Kanzlerin Angela Merkel" will be rendered in English as "the (German) Chancellor Angela Merkel" and the German state "Nordrhein-Westfalen" as "North Rhine-Westphalia".
           In the given text a number of CRs had translations which could be considered as standard translations. Overall, these standard solutions seemed to be little known by the students, as frequent use of the bilingual dictionary for these items suggests. While it was unsurprising that none of the students appeared to know a relatively uncommon term like "Kronanwalt" [*crown lawyer] for "QC", the apparent lack of target-language terminology for more frequent source-culture terms was unexpected. Thus, fourteen students (74%) had to look up the standard translation for "Victorian" (viktorianisch), only one of the students (5%) seemed to actively know the standard translation for "House of Lords" (britisches Oberhaus) and none seemed to be aware of the German translation for "county" (Grafschaft). Some of the students also seemed to have no passive knowledge of the terms, since they expressed uncertainty about the correctness of the standard expressions provided by the bilingual dictionary. 
            For instance, student B1 looked up "House of Lords", saying she hoped the provided solution would "ring a bell", but then frankly admitted that she had never heard the term "Oberhaus" (upper house) before.
Geographical terms also caused problems with eight students looking up "Wales", unaware that the term is usually transferred unaltered into German. Most strikingly, the students also displayed insufficient knowledge of target-language terminology with regard to the item "Britain": three of the students chose to look up "Britain" in the bilingual dictionary, because they could not think of a suitable rendering; one of these students selected the potentially problematic solution "Britannien", ignoring information in the dictionary that the term has become dated; students B9 and B19 simply transferred "Britain", stating in the retrospection that this procedure had been automatic and that they had not been thinking anything in particular; finally, more than 60% of the students, who used the German standard translation "Großbritannien", spelled it incorrectly as "Groß Britanien", "Großbrittanien", "Großbritanien" or "Grossbritanien".
While it is impossible to deduce from such a small sample of CRs with standard translations the extent to which the students were familiar with standard terminology, the fact that many students did not seem to know relatively common terms indicates that there may have been little awareness of German standard terminology for British concepts.
           4. Consideration of readership’s source-culture knowledge
As expected, students seemed to have difficulties assessing the extent to which individual CRs would be known by German readers. As the think-aloud data suggests, decisions as to whether a CR can be transferred into the German target text appeared to be based on two main strategies. Less frequently, the decision seemed to be derived from the students’ personal experience in German-speaking countries, as in the following examples:
High life... got to be in there [looks up "high life" in Collins]... oh, joy... it is... oh, but it’s in English... [laughs]... I don’t know about leaving that in English there... I’ve never heard that... I don’t think I’ve heard that in Germany

[looks up "barrister" in Collins]... I’m not gonna put "Barrister"... although that’s down here... I haven’t actually heard that used in German
Much more frequently, however, decisions as to whether a CR would be understood and accepted by German readers appeared to be based on the solutions provided by the bilingual dictionary. On ninety-one occasions students transferred CRs without explanation because the procedure had been suggested in the dictionary. Thirty-six of these instances were accompanied by comments indicating that students assumed transferred CRs in the bilingual dictionary would be known in Germany, as in the following examples:
retrospection, student B1 ] the first word, it was "Whitehall" in the thingy [bilingual dictionary]... I don’t go by first words, I often look through, but if I’m not sure of it and it does say "Whitehall" or it does say that word first without any... much explanation in between, it implies that they know
[think aloud, student B7] [looks up "peer" in Collins] "Peer"... for "peer" they put the same thing... so actually that means that Germans know what it is
Thirteen other students seemed to agree with student B7 above and also transferred "peer" into their German target texts as suggested in the bilingual dictionary. The assumption that the item would probably be known in Germany, however, is not supported by corpus analysis. Thus, analysis of the IDS corpus of the German newspaper Frankfurter Rundschau (years 1997-99), which addresses an educated readership similar to Der Spiegel, registers 16 hits for the item "peers", referring to members of the British upper house. In basically all instances the item is unambiguously contextualised or explained as in the following example:
Derzeit gehören dem House of Lords 635 "Hereditary Peers" (Erbadelige) und 505 "Life Peers" ... an
Currently, the House of Lords comprises 635 "hereditary peers" (hereditary titles) and 505 "life peers".
In a similar vein, the online archive of the German newspaper Die Zeit (available at: http://www.zeit.de/archiv/index) reveals only a single hit for "peer" for the period 2000 to 2007, in which the phrase "life peers" is succeeded by the explanatory phrase "Lords auf Lebenszeit" [Lords for their lifetime]. As this suggests, the item "Peer" on its own in a German text may cause comprehension problems for at least some German readers.
             Reliance on the bilingual dictionary regularly seemed to lead students towards more exotic solutions than they had originally intended. For instance, when translating the item "Tory" student B8 first reflected: "best to write it in English and afterwards write ‘Tory’ – ‘conservative’". Later, she transferred "Tory" into the text without clarification and reported during the retrospection she had done so "only because I looked it up in the dictionary and it said "Tory" – "Tory", that is the translation for it". Thus, dependency on the bilingual dictionary seems likely to have contributed to instances of transference, many of which seemed potentially problematic on two grounds. First, the bilingual dictionary sometimes suggested the transference of CRs, which, even though they can of course theoretically be transferred, would probably be obscure to German readers unless unambiguously contextualised. 
          Second, many transferred items seemed problematic because their relatively exotic nature could give them undue communicative weight in a German text.
For example, in the source text the item "barristers" appears in a sentence which provides an example of the high number of top professionals working in London: "For instance, half to two thirds of all solicitors and barristers in England and Wales work in London [...]". In the source text, this sentence primarily serves illustrative purposes. Any translation focusing a German reader’s attention on the foreign concept of barrister would therefore seem inappropriate. Nevertheless, two thirds of the students transferred the item, after finding "Barrister" in the dictionary alongside the German near-equivalent "Rechtsanwalt".
                The above indicates that the students’ reliance on the bilingual dictionary contributed to solutions, which probably would have been marked by undue communicative weight because of their "foreign-ness" and a degree of obscurity for a fair number of German readers. The students showed a tendency to adopt ready-made dictionary solutions, but rarely appeared to be critically aware that bilingual dictionaries can only suggest possible solutions, which – especially in the case of cultural references – may often not be appropriate.
  1. Discussion
       The students’ difficulties related to the translation of culture-specific lexis indicate problematic aspects of the students’ intercultural competence. Even though the problems occurred in a translation task, it does not seem unlikely that similar problems could equally affect other communicative scenarios involving culture-bound lexis. The following sections will therefore make some suggestions as to how the individual problems could be approached and hence the students’ intercultural competence enhanced.
            1. Lack of source-culture knowledge
Perhaps most surprisingly, the students seemed to lack familiarity with some of their native culture concepts and, consequently, had difficulty rendering them for German readers. As it seemed, at least some of the students did not partake in certain discourses within their culture and hence lacked familiarity with related concepts, which – especially from the perspective of a cultural outsider (e.g. German) – belong to their national cultural inventory. The fact that language graduates due to their linguistic competence may be expected to mediate in contexts requiring substantial knowledge of discourses, which are basically from within their native culture but nevertheless little known to them, is a problem, which cannot be solved within a foreign language program. Indeed, as Viaggio points out with reference to translation students, "the institution cannot hope to ‘teach’ all the knowledge of the world" (1992: 310). Similarly, Pisek (1997), who also observes that lack of cultural knowledge tends to constitute a translation 
problem for tertiary-level language students, argues convincingly that there are obvious limitations on what can be conveyed within a classroom setting.
             What language classes however can do, is raise students’ awareness that knowledge of their own culture is always limited and that intercultural communication may require them to get a much broader and deeper knowledge base of their own culture than they would normally need within their "domestic" discourses. Hence, language classes should aim to equip learners with the skills needed to identify relevant reference sources about their own culture and to exploit them adequately for communication in the foreign language.
             2. Insufficient knowledge of German source-culture terminology
As reported, students often did not seem to be aware of standard source-culture terminology in German with participants looking up terms as common as "House of Lords", "county", "Wales", or even "Britain". A possible factor which may have contributed to this apparent unfamiliarity with common source-culture terminology in German was discovered when 103 source texts were analysed which had been used in the students’ translation classes (participants in the study were asked to provide teaching material which had been used in their translation classes). As a survey of these texts suggests, the vast majority of source texts for translation both from and into German dealt with Germany or were located in German-speaking settings.

.
Presumably, texts with "German content" were selected to provide the students with information about Germany and to familiarise them with a British perspective on German affairs. The importance of these objectives cannot be called into question, but, as one needs to be aware, a strong focus on the foreign culture also means that the students are only rarely confronted with their own culture in translation tasks. This could explain why many of the British participants in the study did not appear to be familiar with German standard terms for common British concepts. Considering that an important aspect of intercultural competence is the ability to explain one’s own culture in terms of the other (cf. introduction), the use of source texts which deal with the students’ own rather than the foreign culture may be beneficial.
            3. Consideration of readership’s source-culture knowledge
             The finding that the British students seemed to have difficulty assessing whether specific CRs would be known by German readers was not entirely unexpected: even German native speakers may in many cases be unsure about what a German audience can be expected to understand. What appears problematic about the students’ approach, however, is the almost total reliance on the bilingual dictionary to determine what German readers would probably know.
                                                                                   
            Instruction therefore first of all needs to raise students’ awareness that the context-free solutions for CRs in the bilingual dictionary cannot always readily be fitted into any target text. Rather, students have to be encouraged to exercise extreme caution where transference is suggested in the bilingual dictionary and to assess carefully the necessity of introducing relatively foreign items into their texts. Furthermore, where appropriate and available, students should also be encouraged to make use of online corpora in the foreign language, which can provide valuable examples as to how individual foreign items are usually dealt with in the target culture. See the following example given by Sugeng Hariyanto(Sugeng Hariyanto, translanguage@telkom.net)
(1.) SL: Sebuah lembaga penelitian mengadakan penelitian tentang jumlah tabungan perbulan dari para buruh sebuah perusahaan negara di ibukota. Penelitian tersebut menggunakan sampel yang terdiri dari 100 keluarga dan hasilnya dinyatakan sebagai persentasi dari jumlah pendapatan per bulan. (Anto Dajan, 1974: 18)
TL: A research institution conducted a research on the amount of saving deposited by workers of a company located in a capital city. The research took 100 family as a sample and the result was presented in percentage of their monthly wages.
(2) SL: Dalam masyarakat Jawa bila seseorang wanita atau istri sedang hamil, menurut tradisi perlu diadakan bermacam-macam selamatan dan upacara-upacara lainnya. Hal ini perlu dilaksanakan dengan maksud agar bayi yang dikandung akan lahir dengan mudah dan selamat sehingga si anak akan mendapat kebahagiaan hidup dikemudian hari. (Bratawidjaja, 1996: 11).
TL: In a Javanese community, based on traditions, a pregnant woman or wife should be celebrated with various kinds of selamatan (traditional fiest?) and rituals. These should be done so that she can give a birth to a child easily and safely and the newly-born will get happy life later.
(3) SL: Upacara siraman dilakukan pada pagi hari sekitar pukul 09.00. Upacara siraman dilakukan oleh ibu dari anak yang diruwat dengan air kembang setaman. Setelah dibersihkan anak itu mengenakan busana adat Jawa yang secara khusus dibuat. Anak yang diruwat diajak oleh Ki Dalang serta didampingi oleh para pisisepuh (neneknya, budenya, dan lain sebagainya) untuk bersujud di hadapan ayah dan ibunya (Bratawidjaja, 1996: 49)
TL: Siraman (showering?) ceremony is held in the morning around 09:00 o’clock. This ritual is led by the mother of the child being "ruwat" (cleansed?) by showering him with "kembang setaman" (flower??) water. After being cleansed, the child is dresed in Javanese traditional clothes specially designed for him. The ("ruwat") child is then guided by Ki Dalang (the puppeteer??) and accompnied by the elders (the grandmother, aunts, etc.) to pay a homage to by bowing down to earth in front of the father and mother.
                                                                             
         Reading the texts, we can imagine that translating the first text is easier than the second, and the second is easier than the last. The difficulty is caused by the culturally-bound words (concepts) found in each text.
Practically, however, the depth of embededness of a text into its culture is not the first consideration. The purpose of translating is the first determinant. If the purpose of translating text (2) and (3), for example, is to give general introduction of a certain type of text or culture, the TL should not carry all the meaning possessed by the SLT. The words underlined and put in the brackets will do. In this case there are a lot of possibilities for the TL.
             However, if the purpose is to present the Javanese culture before the English readership, the italicized words should be used and accompanied with a lot of explanation. Supposed the two paragraphs are parts of a novel, and the translator wants to keep the local color, only the italicized words should be used. These different purposes govern the choice of translation procedures. Yet, if the purpose of translating text (2) and (3) is to present all the meaning, beauty, and style contained in it, then, translation is impossible.
3. Translation Procedures to Translate Culturally-bound Words or Expressions
           From the previous discussion, it is known that perfect translation of culturally-bound text is impossible. The translation focusing on the purpose of the SL text writing is, however, always possible. This can be proven with the translation of so many literary works into other languages. One of them is the translation of Mangunwijaya's Burung-burung Manyar into English by Thomas M. Hunter. Hariyanto (1997) surveys both groups of SL and TL readers and comes up with the result saying that the readers get the same impressions in terms of the meaning, message and style.
          Based on the result, Hariyanto (1999) studied further the appropriate procedures used to translate culturally-bound sentences, words, and expressions which are embedded in Javanese culture into English using the same novel translation as a case. The result shows that to translate culturally-bound words or expressions, the translator used addition, componential analysis, cultural equivalent, descriptive equivalent, literal translation, modulation, recognized translation, reduction, synonymy, transference, deletion, and combination. Some, however, are typically appropriate for certain classification of cultural words. For detailed description about the translation procedures, see Newmark (1988) or Hariyanto (1999). The brief description on the procedures can be seen in Appendix 1.
On the appropriateness of the procedures to translate culturally-bound words and expressions, these conclusions are taken.
             Recognized translation is best used to translate institutional terms whose translation are already recognized, such as TNI, kabupaten, kecamatan, and Kowilhan. The use of new translation with whatever procedure will make the readers may misinterpret, especially if they already have some degree of knowledge of the source language. The establishment of this recognized translation by the Indonesian Language Center or the people themselves has, of course, undergone a certain process of creation and acceptance. When something about language has been accepted, it means it is a convention: that is the heart of language or vocabulary.
Professions are appropriately translated with cultural equivalents as they exist in both Javanese and English cultures. There are some differences between the two, but they are so minute. The examples can be seen in the following quotations. The SL is Indonesian and the TL is English.
SL: Dan Nah, tentu saja tak mau ketinggalan si gelatik cantik tetapi pencuri-pencuri padi yang nakal itu, dengan pipinya putih dan picinya biru hitam. (p. 17)
TL: And not to be left out were the Java finches. With their white cheeks and their velvet-like caps of deep blue, they were lovely to look at, but as rice thieves they were a troublesome bunch. (p. 27)
The other professions and the translation found in the novel are the following.
The SL words
The translation
(4/1) babu-babu
nursemaids
(8/1) sepandri
privates
(22/4) jongos
bellhop
(24/1) sepandri atau serdadu krocuk
corporals or privates
(36/2) abdi dalem
maid servants
(85/2) abdi
servant
(101/2) pencuri- pencuri padi
rice thieves
(103/2) penjahit
tailor
(106/1) pemburu angkatan                      udara
air force fighter
(122/1) tukang kebun
gardener
(124/1) garong, perampok
thieves and robbers
(135/5) Pak Lurah
village chief
(145/2) jongos
servant
(157/1) carik
clerk
(157/2) ulu-ulu
the waterworks overseer
(178/1) Pak Bupati
the regent
(178/2) bupati penjabat
acting regent
(191/2) maling
thief
Descriptive equivalents are appropriate to translate culturally-bound words or expressions that are not found in the English culture but considered important enough in the text. When they are not, synonyms will do. See this example.
SL: Langsung ia berbahasa ngoko kepadanya, seperti kepada jongos (Mangunwijaya, 1989: 106-107)
TL: He rudely ordered Karjo about, using language that one might use with a servant. (Mangunwijaya, 1993: 136)
The example of this case is berbahasa ngoko which is translated into with language that one might use with a servant. If this expression was not considered very important, the synonym with hostile language could be used.
Literal translation can be used to translate a Javanese word that refers to a general meaning such as sinyo Londo, which is translated into a Dutch boy. This procedure, however, should not be used to translate proper name.
Expansion is found not very significant. It means that without it, the translation was still acceptable. See the following quotation.
SL: Mana Si Karjo. Dikunjungi malah lari. Mandi barangkali. Atau menggodog teh barangkali (p. 156)
TL: Where was Karjo? A person comes to visit and he disappears. May be he was taking a bath, or boiling water for tea?
In the above example, instead of translating menggodog teh into boiling water for tea, the translator actually could translates it into preparing for tea, which is more idiomatic.
Reduction is found to be useful to translate traditional address + proper name constructions as the terms of address are not found in the TL and an explanation is not possible. The examples are the translation of Kang Glati into Glati. See the following excerpt.
    
SL: Pelpolisi Belanda dan resisir mantri polisi dengan cepat melacak Si Bajingan dan Kang Glati masuk bui. (p. 111)
TL: ... the Dutch detectives and constables had tracked him down and thrown Glati into Jail. (p. 141)
Transference is very useful to translate tradition title, terms of address, and proper name. In the context, a reduction of the title or term of address would naturally distort the meaning or message. Few of the examples can be seen below:
The SL words
The translation
(37/1) Gusti Nurul
Gusti Nurul
(43/2) Den Ayu
Den Ayu
(53/3) Mbok Naya
Mbok Naya
(57/1) Mbok Ranu
Mbok Ranu
(119/1) Meener Antana
Meener Antana
(123/1) Mbok Nem
Mbok Nem
           Next, modulation can be used best to handle a word that has no exact equivalent in the TL and the context demands the translator to emphasize the economy and smoothness of the sentence flow. This situation usually happens in a direct quotation where cultural notes are impossible. In addition, with this procedure the translator can still recreate the smooth flow and beauty of the text. The example is the translation of mbak ayu into you and kakangmu into I.
SL: Mbakayu itu macam-macam saja usulnya. (p. 15)
TL: You do come up with some strange suggestions sometimes," Mbok Ranu commented.
SL: Maka Kakangmu pikir: ah, tidak baik membebani orang dengan perkara-perkara yang lebih memberatkan (p. 160)
TL: So I thought to myself that it wouldn't be right to do something that might make even more trouble. (p. 196)
 In the following example the translator also employs modulation and the combination of modulation and addition. Read it closely.

SL: Bila mereka berkomentar ayam itu gemuk dan bertanya apa betul itu ayam Kedu sungguh, maka petang harinya seorang anak disuruh ayahnya mempersembahkan ayam itu kepada mereka. Tetapi bagaimana bila mereka memuji Si Tinem atau Piyah cantik? (p. 109)
TL: Or if one said that a certain hen looked plump and ready for the pot, that same evening the owner would order his son or daughter to offer the chicken to the soldiers. And, because it hadn't been possible to evacuate all the young women of the village, what about when the soldiers began to praise one of the marriage-age girls? (p. 139)

Ayam Kedu in the SLT which means a type of chicken renown for its tasty meat is replaced with ready for the pot. One sense is replaced with another; this is an example of modulation. In the following sentence, the modulation is combined with addition. The reason for the action is added in. Si Tinem or Si Piyah are general names which are here used to refer to grown-up single women. The translator replaces them with the referent marriage-age girls.
Some other modulations are of different types. See the following example.
SL: Mereka meminta Mbok Rukem, janda nakal yang biasanya mereka gerutui untuk menampung lahar birahi tentara itu. (p. 109)
TL: They went to Mbok Rukem, a divorcee whose rumored or real dalliances had so often been the target of their complaints, and asked her assistance in soothing the soldiers' passion. (p. 139)
In the example above, the phrase mereka gerutui is an action, a cause. In the translation the translator gives the effect, the consequence of the action, i.e. the target of their complaints. This is also a modulation.
Finally, there are some culturally-bound words deleted or dropped during the translation process. The translator seems to take this strategy if the word's meaning is not found in the TL culture and the importance is minor. Anyhow, he should try to transfer to meaning               message, especially if it is not merely terms of address. Such words or expressions that have been deleted are:
The SL words
(160/4) ngono ya ngono, ning aja ngono
(168/3) lamat-lamat
(179/1) kepangrehannya
(213/1) basa-basi
(213/2) jiwa raga
(223/4) akal trenggiling
(235/1) berambut ijuk
(236/2) bermata bandeng
        
      E. Final remarks
         The need for a systematic study of an SPL (Special Purpose Language) translation arises directly from the problems encountered during the actual translation process. Hence, it is essential for those working in the field to bring their practical experience to theoretical discussions. As we have seen so far, the translator's role is to facilitate the transfer of the message, meaning and cultural elements from one language into another and to create an equivalent response from the target audience. However, the study of computer terminology and the process of interpreting and translating it into the target language is far from having reached an end-point. With regard to the theoretical analysis submitted above, it becomes evident that several conclusions about the translator's main aims can be drawn:
1. The translator has to possess adequate language competence and cultural background in both SL and TL.
2.  As a consequence, he can aim at producing an impact on the target audience as close as possible to that produced on the readers of the original.
3.  A variety of different approaches have been examined in relation to the cultural implications of translation. Assertions have been made in the paper that in order to preserve specific cultural references, certain additions need to be brought to the TT. Therefore, the translator has to, if not adopt, then adapt, and even modernize where possible, the TL cultural background.
4. Much attention has to be paid to neologisms and newly coined computer terms such as emoticon, because this SPL is growing fast.
5. Unless the translator breaks the rules above, he will meet his target readers' expectations in terms of clarity and optimal communication, that is, understanding and truth relevance.
The study suggests that translation can be a useful tool to uncover deficiencies in students’ intercultural competence. It can also be used to raise awareness of issues in intercultural communication and in this way enhance their competence. In the article some translation problems related to cultural knowledge have been discussed, which illustrate that intercultural competence can depend just as much on knowledge about one’s native culture and how it is linguistically represented in the foreign language as it does on an understanding of the foreign culture. Therefore, language teachers need to anticipate that learners may not be sufficiently familiar with cultural items belonging to their own wider cultural context to deal with them appropriately in tasks requiring mediation.
Appendix
Text used in the think-aloud translation
Britain’s new super class
Britain has a new upper class: the "super class", a highly-paid elite, which is built on old professions and institutions. Being British, they have a solid base in tradition, whether in Oxbridge, Clubland, the Inns of Court, the House of Lords, or the City of London with its medieval Corporation and Lord Mayor. On the other hand, the super class is a new phenomenon originating from the reforms that were a product of Thatcherism in the 1980s. Like the Victorian factory owners and hereditary peers, this class has come to believe in the justice of its wealth and status.
The lives of the new class revolve around Harrods and Kensington; the best public schools; modern art; the Royal Opera; and the high-life in London, where much of the super class is concentrated. For instance, half to two thirds of all solicitors and barristers in England and Wales work in London, as do 85 percent of all QCs.
This concentration in London has two main effects. First, most of the elite’s economic weight is exerted at the heart of the nation, ensuring it strong clout with Whitehall - regardless of whether the government is Tory or New Labour. Secondly, it enables the super class to separate itself from most of the country. Britain beyond the Home Counties barely features on its horizon.
                                                                              
References
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Bassnett, S. and A. Lefevere. (2001). Constructing Cultures: Essays on Literary Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, p4.
Davis, K. (2004). Deconstruction and Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, p9, 22.
Fang, Yuehua. (2006). Misinterpretation and Correction of Nida’s Definition of Translating. Journal of Nantong University, Vol. 22, 94-96.
Huang, Zhending. (2007). Linguistic and Philosophical Basis of Translation Studies. Shanghai: Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press, p142.
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Li, Tianxin. (2004). My Opinion on Nida’s Translation Definition. Foreign Languages Research, Vol. 88, 64-67.
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Lu, Yang. (2008). Specters of Derrida. Wuhan: Wuhan University Press, p186.
Ma, Huijuan. (2003). A Study on Nida’s Translation Theory. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, p91
Munday, J. (2001). Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Applications. London and New York: Routledge, p1.
Nida, E. A. and C. R. Taber. (2004). The Theory and Practice of Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, p12.
Reiss, K. (2004). Translation Criticism: The Potentials & Limitations. Translated by Erroll F. Rhodes. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, p24-38.
Snell-Hornby, M. (2004). Translation Studies: An Integrated Approach. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, p17.
Tan, Zaixi. (1998). A New Book on Nida’s Translation Studies. Beijing: China Translation & Publishing Corporation.
Venuti, L. (1992). Rethinking Translation: Discourse, Subjectivity, Ideology. London and New York: Routledge, p139.
Venuti, L. (2000). The Translation Studies Reader. New York and London: Routledge, p75.
Venuti, L. (2004). The Translator’s Invisibility—A History of Translation. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, p18.
Note 1.
http://www.chinese-thought.org/zwsx/005691.htm
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Judul: TRANSLATION IN RELATION TO CULTURE
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